This section is practically extinct! I am always discovering new things about it – and many of these things are not completely described in the manual. It is identical in format to the environmental file. Most of the issues discussed below are currently irrelevant, or of merely historical interest. The general procedure is much the same, with the following exceptions:

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Canoco 5, released inis now in version 5.


Canoco 4.5 files are readily imported into spreadsheets, statistical packages, or graphics packages for further display or analysis. Canoco 5 helps to make even better publication-quality ordination diagrams. CON which includes information on the choices you make, as well as the files you use and create. Existing Canoco 5 customers can update to Canoco The manual has been largely re-written and the large set of real-life examples is updated and extended to show new ways of working with multivariate data.

This section is practically extinct! It contains the instructions for analysis. The bulk of this page involves version 3. I am leaving it on the canoco 4.5 just in case you have an early version of CANOCO installed in your laboratory, and cannot afford or have not yet ordered a recent upgrade.


This page was created and is maintained by Michael Palmer.

The general procedure is much the same, with the following exceptions: Indeed, it is usually advisable for the covariables file to be the same file as the environmental file. Before you run CANOCO, you might wish to print out a list of all your samples, along with the sample number, a list of all your species, along with the species number, and if your are performing direct gradient analysis cnaoco list of all your environmental canoco 4.5, along with canoco 4.5 variable number.

This is a printed outline of the menu tree. Most of the issues canoco 4.5 below are currently irrelevant, or of merely historical interest. It is merely meant to clarify some of the most frequently encountered canodo in one of the most frequently used packages.

Canoco5 Support Site

Environmental file; produced by the user. It is identical in format to the environmental file. CON” for a study of Oklahoma birds. In theory, the output file is supposed canoco 4.5 be easier to canocp and understand than the solution file. The newer Windows95 version is much smoother, and easier to use. Numerical analyses that used to take many runs, are now available through a single analysis template and the Analysis Notebook concisely summarizes the results and allows access cnoco the full canoco 4.5.


However, I recommend adopting distinctive extensions such as the below, in order to canoco 4.5 confusion. CON file to describe the data set; for example: Canoco canoco 4.5 Windows has a much improved user interface, and a much better manual, than the previous version. There are some other kinds of files optionally used or produced.

Executable files or under newer parlance, “applications”containing the programs. Species file; produced by the user. The Canoco Adviser helps in choosing data transformations and methods of analysis. Canoco-related News 29 October Canoco 5. To the ordination web page.

Canoco for visualization of multivariate data

Canoco 5 implements many recent advances in ordination, such as variation partitioning, co-correspondence analysis, distance-based redundancy analysis and double canoco 4.5 ordination for trait-environment association, but the major advance is in user-friendliness. This contains much the same information as the output file, except in a more simplified form. I strongly recommend using a ‘ nonproportional ‘ font such as Courier to view these files.